Saturday, June 11, 2016

List of amendments

List of amendments to the United States Constitution

 1st
Prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 2nd
Protects the right to keep and bear arms. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 3rd
Places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent, prohibiting it during peacetime. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 4th
Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause as determined by a neutral judge or magistrate. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 5th
Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 6th
Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 7th
Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 8th
Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 9th
Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution, however nebulous and undecypherable they may be. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 10th
Reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution. 
ratified December 15, 1791

 11th
Makes states immune from suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the state borders; lays the foundation for sovereign immunity. 
ratified February 7, 1795

 12th
Revises presidential election procedures. 
ratified June 15, 1804

 13th
Abolishes slavery, and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. 
ratified December 6, 1865

 14th
Defines citizenship, contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause, the Due Process Clause, the Equal Protection Clause, and deals with post-Civil War issues. 
ratified July 9, 1868

 15th
Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 
ratified February 3, 1870

 16th
Permits Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. 
ratified February 3, 1913

 17th
Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. 
ratified April 8, 1913

 18th
Prohibited the manufacturing or sale of alcohol within the United States.
(Repealed December 5, 1933) 
ratified January 16, 1919

 19th
Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on sex. 
ratified August 18, 1920

 20th
Changes the date on which the terms of the President and Vice President (January 20) and Senators and Representatives (January 3) end and begin. 
ratified January 23, 1933

 21st
Repeals the 18th Amendment and gives the States the power to prohibit or regulate the transportation or importation of alcohol for delivery or use. 
ratified December 5, 1933

 22nd
Limits the number of times that a person can be elected president: a person cannot be elected president more than twice, and a person who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected cannot be elected more than once. 
ratified February 27, 1951

 23rd
Grants the District of Columbia electors (the number of electors being equal to the least populous state) in the Electoral College. 
ratified March 29, 1961

 24th
Prohibits the revocation of voting rights due to the non-payment of a poll tax or any other tax. 
ratified January 23, 1964

 25th
Addresses succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. 
ratified February 10, 1967

 26th
Prohibits the denial of the right of US citizens, eighteen years of age or older, to vote on account of age. 
ratified July 1, 1971

 27th
Delays laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until after the next election of representatives. 
ratified May 7, 1992

Thursday, June 9, 2016

Significance of numbers in Judaism


Significance of numbers in Judaism

Numbers play an important part in Judaic ritual practices and are believed to be a means for understanding the divine. A Mishnaic textual source, Pirkei Avot 3:23, makes clear that the use of gematria is dated to at least the Tannaic period. This marriage between the symbolic and the physical found its pinnacle in the creation of the Tabernacle. The Hebrew word for symbol is ot, which, in early Judaism, denoted not only a sign, but also a visible religious token of the relation between God and man. It is largely held by Jewish leadership that the numerical dimensions of the temple are a "microcosm of creation ... that God used to create the Olamot-Universes."


Significance of 1
The gematria (numerical value) of the Hebrew letter א
The Oneness of God

Significance of 2
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ב

Significance of 3
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ג
Indicative of a spiritual struggle or journey, especially 3 days/3 nights. 
Jonah 1:[13] Nevertheless the men rowed hard to bring it to the land; but they could not: for the sea wrought, and was tempestuous against them.
[14] Wherefore they cried unto the LORD, and said, We beseech thee, O LORD, we beseech thee, let us not perish for this man's life, and lay not upon us innocent blood: for thou, O LORD, hast done as it pleased thee.
[15] So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the sea: and the sea ceased from her raging.
[16] Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the LORD, and made vows.
[17] Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.

Significance of 4
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ד

Significance of 5
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ה

Significance of 6
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ו

Significance of 7
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ז
The number 7 is the Divine number of completion
A covenant promise (in Hebrew, the expression literally translated as "to seven oneself" means "to swear a covenant")
The general symbol for all association with God; the favorite religious number of Judaism, typifying the covenant of holiness and sanctification, and also all that was holy and sanctifying in purpose
The Seventh Day, the Sabbath

Significance of 8
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ח

Significance of 9
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ט
The nine months of pregnancy (tisha yerhei leida)

Significance of 10
The gematria of the Hebrew letter י

Significance of 15
One of two numbers that is written differently from the conventions of writing numbers in Hebrew in order to avoid writing the name of God. The other is 16.

Significance of 16
One of two numbers that is written differently from the conventions of writing numbers in Hebrew in order to avoid writing the name of God. The other is 15.

Significance of 18
Gematria of "CHAI" חַי, the Hebrew word for life. Numbers evenly divisible by this number are considered good luck.

Significance of 20
The gematria of the Hebrew letter כ

Significance of 26
Gematria of the Tetragrammaton

Significance of 28
Value associated with "Koach" meaning strength, commonly used in the saying "Yasher Koach"

Significance of 30
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ל

Significance of 36
The Tzadikim Nistarim (Hebrew: צַדִיקִים נִסתָּרים, hidden righteous ones) or Lamed Vav Tzadikim (Hebrew: ל"ו צַדִיקִים, 36 righteous ones), often abbreviated to Lamed Vav(niks)[a], refers to 36 Righteous people, a notion rooted within the more mystical dimensions of Judaism. The singular form is Tzadik Nistar (Hebrew: צַדִיק נִסתָר). The source is the Talmud itself, explained as follows:
As a mystical concept, the number 36 is even more intriguing. It is said that at all times there are 36 special people in the world, and that were it not for them, all of them, if even one of them was missing, the world would come to an end. The two Hebrew letters for 36 are the lamed, which is 30, and the vav, which is 6. Therefore, these 36 are referred to as the Lamed-Vav Tzadikim. This widely held belief, this most unusual Jewish concept is based on a Talmudic statement to the effect that in every generation 36 righteous "greet the Shechinah," the Divine Presence (Tractate Sanhedrin 97b; Tractate Sukkah 45b).

The Lamed-Vav Tzaddikim are also called the Nistarim ("concealed ones"). In our folk tales, they emerge from their self-imposed concealment and, by the mystic powers which they possess, they succeed in averting the threatened disasters of a people persecuted by the enemies that surround them. They return to their anonymity as soon as their task is accomplished, 'concealing' themselves once again in a Jewish community wherein they are relatively unknown. The lamed-vavniks, scattered as they are throughout the Diaspora, have no acquaintance with one another. On very rare occasions, one of them is 'discovered' by accident, in which case the secret of their identity must not be disclosed. The lamed-vavniks do not themselves know that they are one of the 36. In fact, tradition has it that should a person claim to be one of the 36, that is proof positive that they are certainly not one. Since the 36 are each exemplars of anavah, ("humility"), having such a virtue would preclude against one’s self-proclamation of being among the special righteous. The 36 are simply too humble to believe that they are one of the 36.

The term lamedvavnik is derived from the Hebrew letters Lamed (L) and Vav (V), whose numerical value adds up to 36. The "nik" at the end is a Russian or Yiddish suffix indicating "a person who..." (As in "Beatnik"; in English, this would be something like calling them "The Thirty-Sixers".) The number 36 is twice 18. In gematria (a form of Jewish numerology), the number 18 stands for "life", because the Hebrew letters that spell chai, meaning "living", add up to 18. Because 36 = 2×18, it represents "two lives".

Significance of 40
The gematria of the Hebrew letter מ

Significance of 42
Letters in one of God's Divine Names

Significance of 50
The gematria of the Hebrew letter נ

Significance of 60
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ס

Significance of 65
The gematria of Adonai

Significance of 70
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ע

Significance of 80
The gematria of the Hebrew letter פ

Significance of 87
The gematria of Paz, refined gold

Significance of 90
The gematria of the Hebrew letter צ

Significance of 100
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ק

Significance of 200
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ר

Significance of 216
Gematria of Lion (בורה) and Gevurah (גבורה)

Significance of 248
Gematria of Abraham (אברהם)

Significance of 300
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ש

Significance of 365
Length of the solar calendar (which has significance in Judaism)

Significance of 374
Total number of years the First Temple stood

Significance of 400
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ת

Significance of 500
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ך

Significance of 586
Total number of years the Second Temple stood[dubious ]

Significance of 600
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ם
Gematria of the word Tzitzit

Significance of 700
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ן

Significance of 702
Gematria of שַׁבָּת

Significance of 800
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ף

Significance of 900
The gematria of the Hebrew letter ץ

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Periodic Elements List

Do not take this list seriously! It is intended for your viewing enjoyment only. On the other hand this list is intended to be used for all purposes public and private. But always remember, you're on your own.
Z Sym Element Group Period Atomic Weight

1	H	Hydrogen	1	1	1.0082

2	He	Helium     	18	1	4.002602

3	Li	Lithium     	1	2	6.942

4	Be	Beryllium	2	2	9.0121831

5	B	Boron     	13	2	10.812

6	C	Carbon     	14	2	12.0112

7	N	Nitrogen	15	2	14.0072

8	O	Oxygen     	16	2	15.9992

9	F	Fluorine	17	2	18.998403163

10	Ne	Neon     	18	2	20.1797

11	Na	Sodium     	1	3	22.98976928

12	Mg	Magnesium	2	3	24.3059

13	Al	Aluminium	13	3	26.9815385

14	Si	Silicon     	14	3	28.0854

15	P	Phosphorus	15	3	30.973761998

16	S	Sulfur     	16	3	32.062

17	Cl	Chlorine	17	3	35.452

18	Ar	Argon    	18	3	39.948

19	K	Potassium	1	4	39.0983

20	Ca	Calcium     	2	4	40.078

21	Sc	Scandium	3	4	44.955908

22	Ti	Titanium	4	4	47.867

23	V	Vanadium	5	4	50.9415

24	Cr	Chromium	6	4	51.9961

25	Mn	Manganese	7	4	54.938044

26	Fe	Iron     	8	4	55.845

27	Co	Cobalt     	9	4	58.933194

28	Ni	Nickel     	10	4	58.6934

29	Cu	Copper     	11	4	63.546

30	Zn	Zinc     	12	4	65.38

31	Ga	Gallium     	13	4	69.723

32	Ge	Germanium	14	4	72.630

33	As	Arsenic     	15	4	74.921595

34	Se	Selenium	16	4	78.971

35	Br	Bromine     	17	4	79.9049

36	Kr	Krypton     	18	4	83.798

37	Rb	Rubidium	1	5	85.4678

38	Sr	Strontium	2	5	87.62

39	Y	Yttrium     	3	5	88.90584

40	Zr	Zirconium	4	5	91.224

41	Nb	Niobium     	5	5	92.90637

42	Mo	Molybdenum	6	5	95.95

43	Tc	Technetium	7	5	[98]

44	Ru	Ruthenium	8	5	101.07

45	Rh	Rhodium     	9	5	102.90550

46	Pd	Palladium	10	5	106.42

47	Ag	Silver     	11	5	107.8682

48	Cd	Cadmium     	12	5	112.414

49	In	Indium     	13	5	114.818

50	Sn	Tin     	14	5	118.710

51	Sb	Antimony	15	5	121.760

52	Te	Tellurium	16	5	127.60

53	I	Iodine     	17	5	126.90447

54	Xe	Xenon     	18	5	131.293

55	Cs	Caesium     	1	6	132.90545196

56	Ba	Barium     	2	6	137.327

57	La	Lanthanum		6	138.90547

58	Ce	Cerium  		6	140.116

59	Pr	Praseodymium		6	140.90766

60	Nd	Neodymium		6	144.242

61	Pm	Promethium		6	[145]

62	Sm	Samarium		6	150.36

63	Eu	Europium		6	151.964

64	Gd	Gadolinium		6	157.25

65	Tb	Terbium     		6	158.92535

66	Dy	Dysprosium		6	162.500

67	Ho	Holmium     		6	164.93033

68	Er	Erbium     		6	167.259

69	Tm	Thulium     		6	168.93422

70	Yb	Ytterbium		6	173.045

71	Lu	Lutetium	3	6	174.9668

72	Hf	Hafnium     	4	6	178.49

73	Ta	Tantalum	5	6	180.94788

74	W	Tungsten	6	6	183.84

75	Re	Rhenium     	7	6	186.207

76	Os	Osmium     	8	6	190.23

77	Ir	Iridium     	9	6	192.217

78	Pt	Platinum	10	6	195.084

79	Au	Gold     	11	6	196.966569

80	Hg	Mercury     	12	6	200.592

81	Tl	Thallium	13	6	204.389

82	Pb	Lead     	14	6	207.2

83	Bi	Bismuth     	15	6	208.98040

84	Po	Polonium	16	6	[209]

85	At	Astatine	17	6	[210]

86	Rn	Radon     	18	6	[222]

87	Fr	Francium	1	7	[223]

88	Ra	Radium     	2	7	[226]

89	Ac	Actinium		7	[227]

90	Th	Thorium     		7	232.0377

91	Pa	Protactinium		7	231.03588

92	U	Uranium     		7	238.02891

93	Np	Neptunium		7	[237]

94	Pu	Plutonium		7	[244]

95	Am	Americium		7	[243]

96	Cm	Curium     		7	[247]

97	Bk	Berkelium		7	[247]

98	Cf	Californium		7	[251]

99	Es	Einsteinium		7	[252]

100	Fm	Fermium     		7	[257]

101	Md	Mendelevium		7	[258]

102	No	Nobelium		7	[259]

103	Lr	Lawrencium	3	7	[266]

104	Rf	Rutherfordium	4	7	[267]

105	Db	Dubnium     	5	7	[268]

106	Sg	Seaborgium	6	7	[269]

107	Bh	Bohrium     	7	7	[270]

108	Hs	Hassium     	8	7	[269]

109	Mt	Meitnerium	9	7	[278]

110	Ds	Darmstadtium	10	7	[281]

111	Rg	Roentgenium	11	7	[282]

112	Cn	Copernicium	12	7	[285]

113	Uut	Ununtrium	13	7	[286]

114	Fl	Flerovium	14	7	[289]

115	Uup	Ununpentium	15	7	[289]

116	Lv	Livermorium	16	7	[293]

117	Uus	Ununseptium	17	7	[294]

118	Uuo	Ununoctium	18	7	[294]

Friday, May 27, 2016

Oh when the saints

Archangels Edit Michael Raphael Gabriel Unknown Edit Abanoub Al-Nahisy, Child Martyr Abadiu of Antinoe, Bishop of Antinoe 65 Edit Aphrodisius (? – 65), Priest of the Diocese of Béziers, Martyr 258 Edit Lawrence (c. 225–258), Martyr of Rome 304 Edit Saint Afra of Augsburg (? – 304), Martyr 372 Edit Abamun of Tarnut (? – 372), Martyr 536 Edit Agapitus I (? – 536), Pope 543 Edit Benedict of Nursia (c. 480 – 543), canonized in 1220 by Pope Honorius III. 552 Edit Aaron of Aleth (? – 552), Hermit 627 Edit Saint Ame (b.? - 627), canonized in 1049 by Pope Leo IX. 635 Edit Saint Mun (? – 635), Bishop and Hermit 653 Edit Romaric (b.? - 653), canonized in 1049 by Pope Leo IX. 679 Edit Deodatus of Nevers (b.? - ca. 679), canonized in 1049 by Pope Leo IX. 721 Edit John of Beverley (b.? - 721), canonized in 1037 by Pope Benedict IX. 779 Edit Saint Sturm (c. 705 – 779), canonized in 1139 by Pope Innocent II. 784 Edit Vergilius of Salzburg (c. 700 – 784), canonized in 1232 by Pope Gregory IX. 812 Edit William of Gellone (755 – 812 or 814), canonized in 1066 by Pope Alexander II. 814 Edit Charlemagne (b. 742/747/748 – 814), Medieval Frankish King of the Carolingian empire, Holy Roman Emperor – upon prompt by emperor Frederick Barbarossa[1] Canonized in 1166 by Antipope Paschal III, not recognised by the Holy See. Angilbert (c. 760 – 814), canonized in 1100 by Pope Urban II. 816 Edit Pope Leo III (Unknown – 816 AD), canonized in 1673 by Pope Clement X. 827 Edit Adalard of Corbie (751 – 827), canonized in 1024 by Pope John XIX. 865 Edit Paschasius Radbertus (785 – 865), canonized in 1073 by Pope Gregory VII. 868 Edit Pope Nicholas I (c. 800 – 867) canonized in 868 by Pope Adrian II. 926 Edit Wiborada of Saint Gall (St Gallen or 'Sankt-Gall') (b.? - 926), canonized in 1047 by Pope Clement II. 973 Edit Ulrich of Augsburg (890 – 973), canonized in 993 by Pope John XV. 975 Edit Conrad of Constance (c. 900 – 975), canonized in 1123 by Pope Callixtus II. 977 Edit Rudesind (907 – 977), canonized in 1195 by Pope Celestine III. 994 Edit Gerard of Toul (935 – 994), canonized in 1050 by Pope Leo IX. Wolfgang of Regensburg (c.934 – 994), canonized in 1051 by Pope Leo IX. 997 Edit Adalbert of Prague (c. 956 – 997), canonized in 997 by Pope Gregory V. 999 Edit Adelaide of Italy (931-999), Married layperson of the Archdiocese of Burgundy, Queen of Burgundy, canonized 1097 by Pope Urban II. 11th century Edit 1004 Edit Abbo of Fleury (c. 945 – 1004), Archbishop of Oswald (Canonized: ?) 1007 Edit Attilanus (937–1007), canonized in 1095 by Pope Urban II. 1009 Edit Andrew Zorard (c.980 – 1009, 1010, 1030 or 1034), canonized in 1085 by Pope Gregory VII. 1012 Edit Ælfheah of Canterbury (c. 953 – 1012), Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishop of Winchester; canonized in 1078 by Pope Gregory VII. Benedict of Szkalka (b.? - 1012, 1033 or 1037), canonized in 1085 by Pope Gregory VII. 1015 Edit Adelheid of Vilich (c. 970 – 1015, Professed Religious of the Benedictine Nuns (Beatified: January 27, 1966)[citation needed] Vladimir Sviatoslavich (c. 958 – 1015), Grand Prince of Kiev 1016 Edit Simeon of Mantua (9??–1016), canonized in 1016 by Pope Benedict VIII. 1021 Edit Heribert of Cologne (c. 970 – 1021), canonized in 1075 by Pope Gregory VII. 1022 Edit Symeon the New Theologian (949 – 1022), Theologian Bernward of Hildesheim (c. 960 – 1022), canonized in 1193 by Pope Celestine III. 1024 Edit Henry II (973 – 1024), Emperor of Burgundy and Bavaria; canonized in 1146 by Pope Eugene III. 1025 Edit Romuald (c. 951 – c. 1025 or 1027[when?]), canonized in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. 1026 Edit Bononio (b.? - 1026), canonized in 1026 by Pope John XIX. 1027 Edit Romuald (c. 950 – 1027), canonized in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. 1031 Edit Emeric of Hungary (c. 1007–1031) canonized in 1083 by Pope Gregory VII. 1035 Edit Symeon of Trier (b. ?980s – 1035), canonized in 1042 by Pope Benedict IX. 1038 Edit Stephen I of Hungary (c. 975 – 1038), Married Layperson of the Archdiocese of Esztergom, King of Hungary; canonized in 1083 by Pope Gregory VII. Emma of Lesum (c. 975-980 – 1038) Gotthard of Hildesheim (960 – 1038), canonized in 1129 by Pope Innocent II. 1040 Edit Cunigunde of Luxembourg, OSB (c. 975 – 1040), canonized in 1200 by Pope Innocent II. 1045 Edit Sigfrid of Sweden (b.? - 1045), canonized in (date unknown) by Pope Adrian IV. 1046 Edit Gerard of Csanád (980 – 1046), canonized in 1083 by Pope Gregory VII. 1053 Edit Procopius of Sázava (c. 970 – 1053), canonized in 1204 by Pope Innocent III. 1054 Edit Pope Leo IX (1002–1054), canonized in 1082 by Pope Gregory VII. 1057 Edit Íñigo of Oña (b.? - 1057), canonized in 1259 by Pope Alexander IV. 1060 Edit Adamo Abate (c. 990 – c. 1060–1070), Professed religious of the Benedictines 1066 Edit Theobald of Provins (1033–1066), canonized in 1073 by Pope Alexander II. Edward the Confessor (1003–1066), canonized in 1161 by Pope Alexander III. 1070 Edit Godelina (c. 1049–1070), canonized in 1084 by Pope Urban II. 1073 Edit Abraham of Rostov (b.? - d.1073 to 1077), Monk Antipas (Anthony of the Caves) (c. 983-1073), Cofounder of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra John Gualbert (985 or 995 – 1073), canonized in 1103 by Pope Celestine III. William of Roskilde (da) (b.? - 1073 or 1074), canonized in 1224 by Pope Honorius III. 1075 Edit Erlembald (b.? - 1075) canonized in 1095 by Pope Urban II. Anno II (Anno II of Cologne), (c. 1010–1075), canonized in 1186 by Pope Lucius III. 1079 Edit Stanislaus of Szczepanów (1030–1079), canonized in 1253 by Pope Innocent IV. 1081 Edit Bernard of Menthon (c. 1020–1081), Professed Religious of the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine; canonized in 1681 by Pope Innocent XI. 1085 Edit Hildebrand of Sovana, Pope Gregory VII, (c. 1015–1085), Pope; canonized in 1728 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1086 Edit Canute IV of Denmark (c. 1042–1086), canonized in 1101 by Pope Paschal II. 1087 Edit Arnold of Soissons (c. 1040–1087), canonized in 1120 by Pope Callixtus II. 1091 Edit Wolfhelm of Brauweiler (b.? - 1091), Professed Priest of the Benedictines 1093 Edit Margaret of Scotland (c. 1045–1093), Married layperson and Queen of Scotland; canonized in 1250 by Pope Innocent IV. 1094 Edit Nicola Pellegrino (1075–1094), canonized in 1098 by Pope Urban II. 1095 Edit Ladislaus I of Hungary (c. 1040–1095), canonized in 1192 by Pope Celestine III. Gerald of Sauve-Majeure (c. 1025–1095), canonized in 1197 by Pope Celestine III. Wulstan (c. 1008–1095), canonized in 1203 by Pope Celestine III. 1099 Edit Osmund (b.? - 1099), canonized in 1457 by Pope Callixtus III. 12th century Edit 1106 Edit Benno of Meissen (c. 1010–1106), canonized in 1523 by Pope Adrian VI. 1109 Edit Peter of Anagni (b.? - 1105), canonized in 1109 by Pope Paschal II. Hugh of Cluny a.k.a. Saint Hugh the Great, (1024–1109), canonized in 1120 by Pope Callixtus II. Anselm of Canterbury (c. 1033–1109), canonized in 1163 by Pope Alexander III. 1111 Edit Robert of Molesme (1028–1111), canonized in 1222 by Pope Honorius III. 1115 Edit Ivo of Chartres (c. 1040–1115), canonized in 1570 by Pope Pius V. 1118 Edit Gerard of Potenza (b.? - 1118), canonized in 1119 by Pope Callixtus II. 1121 Edit Jón Helgi Ögmundarson (1052–1121), canonized in 1201 by Pope Innocent III. 1123 Edit Bruno of Segni, (c. 1047–1123), canonized in 1181 by Pope Lucius III. 1124 Edit Stephen of Muret (1045–1124), canonized in 1189 by Pope Clement III. 1126 Edit Bertrand of Comminges (1050–1126), canonized in 1220 by Pope Honorius III. 1130 Edit Isidore the Laborer (c. 1070 – 1130), canonized in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. Theresa of Portugal (1080 – 1130), canonized in 1705 by Pope Clement XI. 1131 Edit Canute Lavard (1096–1131), canonized in 1169 by Pope Alexander III. 1132 Edit Hugh of Châteauneuf (1053–1132). canonized in 1134 by Pope Innocent II. 1134 Edit Norbert of Xanten (c. 1080–1134), canonized in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. Stephen Harding (ca. 1050–1134), canonized in 1623 by Pope Urban VIII. 1135 Edit Belina (b.? - 1135), canonized in 1203 by Pope Innocent III. 1136 Edit Leopold III (1073–1136), canonized in 1485 by Pope Innocent VIII. 1139 Edit Otto of Bamberg (1060 or 1061–1139). canonized in 1189 by Pope Clement III. 1140 Edit Gaucherius (1060–1140), canonized in 1194 by Pope Celestine III. 1142 Edit Berthold of Garsthen (b.? - d. 1142?), Professed priest of the Benedictines (Beatified: January 8, 1970) 1145 Edit Bellinus (b.? - 1145), canonized by Pope Eugene IV. 1148 Edit Malachy O'More (1095–1148), canonized in 1190 by Pope Clement III. 1153 Edit Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), Reformer of the Cistercian Order; canonized in 1174 by Pope Alexander III. 1154 Edit William Fitzherbert (b.? - 1154), canonized in 1226 by Pope Honorius III. Stephen of Obazine (1085 – 1154), canonized in 1701 by Pope Clement XI. 1156 Edit Henry of Uppsala (b.? - c. 1156), canonized in 1158 by Pope Adrian IV. 1157 Edit William of Maleval (b.? - 1157), canonized in 1202 by Pope Innocent III. 1158 Edit Rögnvald Kali Kolsson (Ronald) (c. 1103–1158)), Layperson of the Diocese of Caithness; canonized in 1192 by Pope Celestine III. Guarinus of Palestrina (c. 1080–1158), canonized in 1159 by Pope Alexander III. 1159 Edit John of Meda (John of Como) (1100–1159), canonized in ca. 1170 by Pope Alexander III. 1160 Edit Ubald of Gubbio (c. 1084–1160), Bishop of Gubbio; canonized in 1192 by Pope Celestine III. Helena of Skövde (c. 1101–1160), canonized in 1164 by Pope Alexander III. Rainerius (c. 1115 or 1117–1160), canonized by Pope Alexander III. 1165 Edit Adalgott (b.? - 1165), Bishop of Chur 1170 Edit Thomas Becket (b. 1119 or 1120–1170), Archbishop of Canterbury; canonized in 1173 by Pope Alexander III. 1174 Edit Peter of Tarentaise (1102–1174), canonized in 1191 by Pope Celestine III. 1179 Edit Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179), Professed religious of the Benedictine Nuns; beatified in 1326, canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI), Doctor of the Church in 2012. 1180 Edit Lorcán Ua Tuathail (a.k.a. Lawrence O’Toole) (1128–1180), canonized in 1225 by Pope Honorius III. 1181 Edit Galgano Guidotti (1148–1181), canonized in 1185 by Pope Lucius III. 1192 Edit Albert of Louvain (1166–1192), canonized in 1621 by Pope Paul V. 1196 Edit Meinhard (b.1134 or 1136–1196), Professed priest of the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine, Bishop of Latvia; canonized in 1993 by Pope John Paul II. 1197 Edit Homobonus of Cremona (b.? - 1197), canonized in 1199 by Pope Innocent III. 13th century Edit 1200 Edit Hugh of Lincoln (1135/40 – 1200), canonized in 1220 by Pope Honorius III. 1201 Edit William of Perth (b.? – c. 1201), canonized in 1256 by Pope Alexander IV. 1208 Edit Julian of Cuenca (1127–1208), canonized in 1594 by Pope Clement VIII. 1209 Edit William de Donjeon (c. 1155–1209), canonized in 1218 by Pope Honorius III. 1212 Edit Felix of Valois (1127–1212), canonized in 1262 by Pope Urban IV. 1213 Edit John of Matha (1160–1213), canonized in 1266 by Pope Alexander VII. 1218 Edit Franca Visalta (1170–1218), canonized in 1273 by Pope Gregory X. 1220 Edit Berard of Carbio (b.? - 1220), canonized in 1481 by Pope Sixtus IV. 1221 Edit Dominic de Guzman (1170–1221), canonized in 1234 by Pope Gregory IX. 1222 Edit Abraham of Smolensk (b. 12th century – c. 1222), canonized in 1549 by Pope Paul III. 1226 Edit Francis of Assisi (1181/1182 – 1226), Italian Roman Catholic friar and preacher; canonized in 1228, by Pope Gregory IX. 1227 Edit Daniel and Companions (died 10 October 1227), canonized in 1516 by Pope Leo X. 1231 Edit Anthony of Padua (1195–1231), canonized in 1232 by Pope Gregory IX. 1234 Edit William Pinchon (1175–1234), canonized in 1247 by Pope Innocent IV. 1235 Edit Elizabeth of Hungary (1207–1235), patron saint of the homeless, blessed by St. Francis of Assisi, associated with the Third Order of St. Francis, first saint associated with roses through the miracle of the roses; canonized in 1235 by Pope Gregory IX. 1240 Edit Edmund Rich (1175–1240), canonized in 1246 by Pope Innocent IV. Raymond Nonnatus (1204–1240), canonized in 1657 by Pope Alexander VII. Serapion of Algiers (1179 – 1240), canonized in 1728 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1243 Edit Hedwig of Silesia (1174–1243), canonized in 1267 by Pope Clement IV. Bernat Calbó (c. 1180 – 1243), canonized in 1710 by Pope Clement XI. 1251 Edit Rose of Viterbo, T.O.S.F. (c. 1233–1251), canonized in 1457 by Pope Callixtus III. 1252 Edit Peter of Verona, O.P. (a.k.a. Peter "Martyr" of Verona) (1206–1252), canonized in 1253 by Pope Innocent IV. Ferdinand III of Castile (1199 or 1201–1252), canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 1253 Edit Clare of Assisi (1194–1253), canonized in 1255 by Pope Alexander IV. Richard de Wych (1197–1253), canonized in 1262 by Pope Urban IV. 1256 Edit Peter Nolasco (1189–1256), canonized in 1628 by Pope Urban VIII. 1257 Edit Hyacinth of Poland (ca. 1185–1257), canonized in 1594 by Pope Clement VIII. 1260 Edit Boniface of Lausanne (1183 – 1260), canonized in 1702 by Pope Clement XI. 1267 Edit Sylvester Gozzolini (1177–1267), canonized in 1598 by Pope Clement VIII. 1270 Edit Louis IX of France (1214–1270), canonized in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. 1272 Edit Zita of Lucca (c. 1212 – 1272), canonized in 1696 by Pope Innocent XII. 1274 Edit Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII. Bonaventure (1221–1274), canonized in 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV. 1275 Edit Raimundo de Penafort (c. 1175–1275) Spanish Dominican friar; canonized in 1601 by Pope Clement VIII. 1282 Edit Benvenutus Scotivoli (b.? - 1282), canonized in 1284 by Pope Martin IV. Thomas de Cantilupe (c. 1218–1282), canonized in 1320 by Pope John XXII. 1285 Edit Philip Benizi de Damiani (1233–1285), canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 1292 Edit Kinga of Poland (1224 – 1292), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. 1296 Edit Pope Celestine V (a.k.a. Peter Celestine) (1215–1296), canonized in 1313 by Pope Clement V. 1297 Edit Louis of Toulouse (1274–1297), canonized in 1317 by Pope John XXII. Margaret of Cortona, T.O.S.F. (1247 – 1297), canonized in 1728 by Pope Benedict XIII. 14th century – 16th century Edit 1302 Edit Sancha of Portugal (1264 – c. 1302), canonized in 1705 by Pope Clement XI. 1303 Edit Ivo of Kermartin, T.O.S.F. (1253–1303), canonized in 1347 by Pope Clement VI. 1304 Edit Pedro Armengol (c. 1238 - 1304), canonized in 1687 by Pope Innocent XI . 1305 Edit Nicholas of Tolentino (c. 1246–1305), canonized in 1447 (or 1446) by Pope Eugene IV. 1307 Edit Albert of Sicily (c. 1240–1307), canonized in 1476 by Pope Sixtus IV. 1317 Edit Agnes of Montepulciano, O.P. (1268 – 1317), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1310 Edit Humility (c. 1226 – 1310), canonized in 1720 by Pope Clement XI. 1323 Edit Elzéar of Sabran (1285–1323), canonized in 1370 by Pope Urban V. 1336 Edit Elizabeth of Portugal (1271–1336), canonized in 1625 by Pope Urban VIII. 1341 Edit Juliana Falconieri O.S.M., (1270 – 1341), canonized in 1737 by Pope Clement XII. 1345 Edit Peregrine Laziosi (c. 1260 – 1345), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1351 Edit Conrad of Piacenza (c. 1290–1351), canonized in 1625 by Pope Urban VIII. 1373 Edit Bridget of Sweden (1303–1373), canonized in 1391 by Pope Boniface IX. Andrew Corsini (1302–1373), canonized in 1629 by Pope Urban VIII. 1379 Edit John Twenge (1319–1379), canonized in 1401 by Pope Boniface IX. 1380 Edit Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), canonized in 1461 by Pope Pius II. 1381 Edit Catherine of Sweden (c. 1332–1381), canonized in 1484 by Pope Innocent VIII. 1393 Edit John of Nepomuk (c. 1345 – 1393), canonized in 1729 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1419 Edit Vincent Ferrer, O.P. (1350–1419), canonized in 1455 by Pope Callixtus III. 1429 Edit Joan of Arc (1412–1429), French heroine and martyr; canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. 1436 Edit Francesca Bussa de Ponziani (1384–1436), Married layperson of the Vicariate of Rome; canonized in 1608 by Pope Paul V. 1440 Edit Frances of Rome (1384–1440), canonized in 1608 by Pope Paul V. 1444 Edit Bernardino of Siena (1380–1444), canonized in 1450 by Pope Nicholas V. 1456 Edit John of Capistrano (1386 – 1456), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. Lawrence Giustiniani (1381 – 1456), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. 1459 Edit Antoninus of Florence (1389–1459), canonized in 1523 by Pope Adrian VI. 1463 Edit Didacus of Alcalá (c. 1400 – 1463), canonized in 1588 by Pope Sixtus V. Catherine of Bologna (1413 – 1463), canonized in 1712 by Pope Clement XI. 1476 Edit James of the Marches, O.F.M. (ca. 1391 – 1476), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1479 Edit John of Sahagún (1419 – 1479), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. 1484 Edit Casimir (1458–1484), canonized in 1521 by Pope Leo X. 1507 Edit Francis of Paola (1416–1507), canonized in 1519 by Pope Leo X. 1510 Edit Catherine of Genoa (1447 – 1510), canonized in 1737 by Pope Clement XII. 1515 Edit Joseph of Volokolamsk (1439 or 1440–1515), canonized in 1578 by Pope Gregory XIII. 1547 Edit Cajetan (1480–1547), canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 1548 Edit Juan Diego (1474 – 1548), is the first Roman Catholic indigenous American saint;[2] canonized in 2002 by Pope John Paul II. 1550 Edit John of God (1495 – 1550), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. 1552 Edit Francis Xavier, S.J. (1506 – 1552), canonized in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. 1555 Edit Thomas of Villanova (1488–1555), canonized in 1658 by Pope Alexander VII. 1562 Edit Peter of Alcantara (1499–1562), canonized in 1669 by Pope Clement IX. 1568 Edit Stanislaus Kostka, S.J. (1550 – 1568), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1572 Edit Francis Borgia (1510 – 1572), canonized in 1670 by Pope Clement X. Pope Pius V (1504 – 1572), canonized in 1712 by Pope Clement XI. 1581 Edit Louis Bertrand, O.P., (1526–1581), canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 1582 Edit Teresa of Ávila (1515 – 1582), canonized in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. 1584 Edit Charles Borromeo (1538–1584), canonized in 1610 by Pope Paul V. 1587 Edit Felix of Cantalice (1515 – 1587), canonized in 1712 by Pope Clement XI. 1591 Edit John of the Cross, O.C.D. (1542 – 1591), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. Aloysius Gonzaga, S.J. (1568 – 1591), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1592 Edit Paschal Baylon (1540 – 1592), canonized in 1690 by Pope Alexander VIII. 1595 Edit Philip Neri (1515 – 1595), canonized in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV. 17th century Edit 1606 Edit Turibius of Mongrovejo (1538 – 1606), canonized in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. 1607 Edit Maria Magdalena de Pazzi (1566–1607), canonized in 1669 by Pope Clement IX. 1608 Edit Andrew Avellino (1521 – 1608), canonized in 1712 by Pope Clement XI. 1610 Edit Francis Solanus, O.F.M. (1549 – 1610), canonized in 1726 vy Pope Benedict XIII. 1617 Edit Rose of Lima, T.O.S.D., (1586–1617), canonized in 1671 by Pope Clement X. 1619 Edit Lawrence of Brindisi (1559–1619), canonized in 1881 by Pope Leo XIII. 1622 Edit Francis de Sales (1567–1622), canonized in 1665 by Pope Alexander VII. 1637 Edit Lorenzo Ruiz (c. 1600–1637), canonized in 1987 by Pope John Paul II. 1640 Edit John Francis Regis (1597 – 1640), canonized in 1737 by Pope Clement XII. 1645 Edit Mariana de Jesús de Paredes, Layperson of the Archdiocese of Quito, Member of the Secular Franciscans; venerated in 1776, beatified in 1853, canonized in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. Juan Macias, Professed religious of the Dominicans; venerated in 1762, beatified in 1837, canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. 1651 Edit Virginia Centurione Bracelli (1587–1651), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1660 Edit Vincent de Paul (1581 – 1660), canonized in 1737 by Pope Clement XII. 1663 Edit Joseph of Cupertino, O.F.M. Conv. (Giuseppe Desa) (1603 – 1663), canonized in 1767 by Pope Clement XIII. 1667 Edit Bernard of Corleone (1605–1667), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. 1672 Edit Pedro Calungsod (ca.1654–1672), canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1680 Edit Kateri Tekakwitha (ca.1656–1680), canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1682 Edit Claude de la Colombière, SJ (1641–1682), canonized in 1992 by Pope John Paul II. 1690 Edit Marguerite Marie Alacoque (1647–1690), canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. 18th century Edit 1700 Edit Marguerite Bourgeoys (1620–1700), canonized in 1982 by Pope John Paul II. 1708 Edit François de Laval, (1623–1708), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1709 Edit Nicholas Longobardi (1650–1709), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1711 Edit Joseph Vaz (1651–1711), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1713 Edit Giuseppe Maria Tomasi (1649–1713), canonized in 1986 by Pope John Paul II. 1728 Edit Rose Venerini (1656–1728), canonized in 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1729 Edit Thomas of Cori, OFM (1655–1729), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. 1736 Edit Jeanne Delanoue (1666–1736), canonized in 1982 by Pope John Paul II. 1742 Edit Francis Fasani (1681–1742), canonized in 1986 by Pope John Paul II. 1744 Edit Maria Crescentia Höss (1682–1744), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. 1750 Edit Crispin of Viterbo (1668–1750), cannonized in 1982 by Pope John Paul II. 1770 Edit Ignatius of Santhià (1686–1770), canonized in 2002 by Pope John Paul II. 1771 Edit Marguerite d’Youville (1701–1771), canonized in 1990 by Pope John Paul II. 1784 Edit Junípero Serra (1713–1784), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1787 Edit Felix of Nicosia (1715–1787), canonized in 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI. 19th century Edit 1812 Edit Egidio Maria of Saint Joseph (Francis Anthony Postillo) (1729–1812), canonized in 1996 by Pope John Paul II. 1820 Edit Clemens Maria Hofbauer (Johannes Hofbauer; Klemens Maria) (1751–1820), Professed priest of the Redemptorists; venerated in 1876, beatified in 1888, canonized in 1909 by Pope Pius X. 1821 Edit Elizabeth Ann Seton (1774–1821), Widow, founder of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Sisters of Charity of Seton Hill, Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul of Halifax, Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul of New York, and Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth of New Jersey; venerated in 1959, beatified in 1963, canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. 1822 Edit Antônio de Sant'Anna Galvão (Antonio of Saint Anne) (1739–1822), Professed priest of the Franciscan Friars Minor; venerated in 1997, beatified in 1998, canonized in 2007 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1824 Edit Vincent Strambi (Vincenzo Maria of Saint Paul) (1745–1824), Professed priest of the Passionists, Bishop of Macerata; venerated in 1894, beatified in 1925, canonized in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. 1835 Edit Magdalene of Canossa (1774–1835), canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II. 1837 Edit Claudine Thévenet (Mary of St. Ignatius) (1774–1837), canonized in 1993 by Pope John Paul II. 1840 Edit Jean-Gabriel Perboyre (1802–1840). canonized in 1996 by Pope John Paul II. Marcellin Champagnat (1789–1840), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. 1852 Edit Marie-Guillemette-Emilie de Rodat (1787–1852), Founder of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Villefranche; venerated in 190, beatified in 1940, canonized in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. Rose Philippine Duchesne (1769–1852), Professed religious of the Society of the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; venerated in 1935, beatified in 1940, canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II. Ignazia Verzeri (Teresa Eustochio), Founder of the Daughters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; venerated in 1922, beatified in 1946, canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. 1853 Edit Gaspar Bertoni (1777–1853), canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. 1854 Edit Émilie de Villeneuve (1811–1854), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1855 Edit Ludovico of Casoria (1814–1855), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1856 Edit Mother Théodore Guérin (1798–1856), canonized in 2006 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1857 Edit Dominic Savio (1842–1857), canonized in 1954 by Pope Pius XII. 1858 Edit Benedetta Cambiagio Frassinello (1791–1858), canonized in 2002 by Pope John Paul II. Nimattullah Kassab Al-Hardini (1808–1858), canonized in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. 1860 Edit Gaetano Errico (1791–1860), canonized in 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1861 Edit Charles-Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod (1782–1861). canonized in 1995 by Pope John Paul II. 1862 Edit Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows (1838–1862), canonized in 1920 by Pope Benedict XV. 1865 Edit Paola Elisabetta Cerioli (1816–1865), canonized in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. 1866 Edit Maria De Mattias (1805–1866), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1869 Edit Narcisa de Jesús (1832–1869), canonized in 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1870 Edit Clelia Barbieri (1847–1870), canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. 1871 Edit Kuriakose Elias Chavara (1805–1871), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1875 Edit Francisco Coll Guitart (1812–1875), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1876 Edit Maria Rosa Molas y Vallvé (1815–1876), canonized in 1988 by Pope John Paul II. 1877 Edit Marie-Azélie Guérin Martin (1831–1877), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1878 Edit Mariam Baouardy (1846–1878), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1879 Edit Jeanne Jugan (1792–1879), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1880 Edit Maria Giuseppa Rossello (Benedetta Rossello; Maria Giuseppa), (1811–1880), Founder of the Daughters of Our Lady of Mercy; venerated in 1936, beatified in 1938, canonized in 1949 by Pope Pius XII. 1881 Edit Daniel Comboni (1831–1881), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1882 Edit Paula Frassinetti (1809–1882), canonized in 1984 by Pope John Paul II. 1884 Edit Luigi Scrosoppi (1804–1884), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. 1888 Edit Giovanni Antonio Farina (1803–1888), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1889 Edit Paula Montal Fornes de San Jose de Calasanz (1799–1889), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Father Damien (Damien de Veuster) (1840–1889), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1893 Edit Charles of Mount Argus (1821–1893), canonized in 2007 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1894 Edit Agostina Livia Pietrantoni (1864–1894), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. Caterina Volpicelli (1839–1894), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. Louis Martin (1823–1894), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1895 Edit Joseph Marello (1844–1895), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński (1822–1895), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1896 Edit Enrique de Ossó y Cercelló (1840–1896), canonized in 1993 by Pope John Paul II. Jacques Berthieu (1838–1896), canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1897 Edit Marie-Francoise-Therese Martin (1873–1897), Professed religious of the Discalced Carmelite nuns; venerated in 1921, beatified in 1923, canonized in 1925 by Pope Pius XI. 1898 Edit Marie-Eugénie de Jésus (1817–1898), canonized in 2007 by Pope Benedict XVI. Saint Charbel (1828–1898), canonized in 1977 by Pope Paul VI. 20th century Edit 1900 Edit Leonardo Murialdo (1828–1900), Priest of the Archdiocese of Turin, founder of the Congregation of Saint Joseph; venerated in 1961, beatified in 1963, canonized in 1970 by Pope Paul VI. 1901 Edit Josep Manyanet i Vives (1833–1901), canonized in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. 1902 Edit Maria Goretti (1890–1902), Child of the Diocese of Albano; venerated in 1945, beatified in 1947, canonized in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. Agostino Roscelli (1818–1902), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. 1903 Edit Geltrude Comensoli (1847–1903), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1905 Edit Bonifacia Rodríguez y Castro (1837–1905), canonized in 2011 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1906 Edit Ezequiel Moreno y Díaz (1848–1906), canonized in 1992 by Pope John Paul II. Adelaide Brando (1856–1906), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1907 Edit Raphael Kalinowski, OCD (1835–1907), canonized in 1991 by Pope John Paul II. 1908 Edit Joseph Freinademetz (1852–1908), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1909 Edit Arnold Janssen (1837–1909), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. Mary MacKillop (1842–1909), canonized in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1910 Edit Miguel Febres Cordero (1854–1910), canonized in 1984 by Pope John Paul II. 1911 Edit María del Monte Carmelo Sallés y Barangueras (1848–1911), canonized in 2012 by Pope John Paul II. 1912 Edit María Josefa of the Heart of Jesus Sancho de Guerra (1842–1912), canonized in 2000 by Pope John Paul II. Arcangelo Tadini (1846–1912), canonized in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI. Candida Maria of Jesus (1845–1912), canonized in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1913 Edit Giovanni Battista Piamarta (1841–1913), canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1914 Edit Benedict Menni, OH (1841–1914), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès (1832–1914), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Leonie Françoise de Sales Aviat (1844–1914), canonized in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Jose Gabriel del Rosario Brochero (1840–1914), canonized in 2016 by Pope Francis. 1915 Edit Luigi Guanella (1842–1915), canonized in 2011 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1916 Edit Albert Chmielowski (Albert of Kraków) (1845–1916), canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. 1917 Edit Mutien-Marie Wiaux, FSC (1841–1917), canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. Vincenzo Grossi (1845–1917), canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1918 Edit Marianne Cope (1838–1918). canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1920 Edit Teresa de Jesus de los Andes (Juana Fernández Solar) (1900–1920), canonized in 1993 by John Paul II. 1923 Edit Józef Bilczewski (1860–1923), canonized in 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1924 Edit Józef Sebastian Pelczar (1842–1924), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1925 Edit Anna Schäffer (1882–1925), canonized in 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1927 Edit Giuseppe Moscati (1880–1927), canonized in 1987 by Pope John Paul II. 1928 Edit Jose Sanchez del Rio (1913–1928), canonized in 2016 by Pope Francis. 1929 Edit José María Rubio (1864–1929), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1930 Edit Riccardo Pampuri, O.H. (1897–1930) canonized in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. 1931 Edit Guido Maria Conforti (1865–1931), canonized in 2011 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1932 Edit Angela of the Cross (1846–1932), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1934 Edit Brother Cyrill Bertrán and 8 Companions (+1934), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. Innocencio of Mary Immaculate (1887–1934), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. 1936 Edit Pedro Poveda Castroverde (1874–1936), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1937 Edit Jaime Hilario Barbal (1889–1937), Canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. André Bessette (1845–1937), Canonized in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1938 Edit Faustina Kowalska (1905–1938), Apostle of Divine Mercy, Nun, Mystic; canonized in 2000 by Pope John Paul II. 1939 Edit Ursula Ledóchowska (1865–1939), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1940 Edit Luigi Orione (1872–1940), canonized in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. 1941 Edit Maximilian Kolbe, OFM (1894–1941), canonized in 1982 by Pope John Paul II. 1942 Edit Leopold Mandić (1866–1942), canonized in 1983 by Pope John Paul II. 1946 Edit Alphonsa Muttathupadathu (1910–1946), canonized in 2008 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1947 Edit Josephine Bakhita (1869–1947), Sudanese-born former slave who became a Canossian Religious Sister; canonized in 2000 by Pope John Paul II. 1949 Edit Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena (1874–1949), canonized in 2013 by Pope Francis. 1952 Edit Alberto Hurtado (1901–1952), canonized in 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI. 1954 Edit Giovanni Calabria (1873–1954), canonized in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. 1955 Edit Katharine Drexel (1858–1955), canonized in 2000 by Pope John Paul II. 1956 Edit Genoveva Torres Morales (1870–1956), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1957 Edit Elizabeth Hesselblad (1870–1957), canonized in 2016 by Pope Francis. 1962 Edit Gianna Molla (1922–1962), Italian pediatrician, canonized in 2004 by Pope John Paul II. 1963 Edit Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963), canonized in 2005 by Pope Benedict XVI. Pope John XXIII (1881–1963), canonized in 2014 by Pope Francis. 1968 Edit Pio of Pietrelcina (Padre Pio) (1887–1968), Franciscan friar, priest, stigmatist, and mystic; canonized in 2002 by Pope John Paul II. 1974 Edit Maravillas de Jesús (1891–1974), canonized in 2003 by Pope John Paul II. 1975 Edit Josemaría Escrivá (1902–1975), canonized in 2002 by Pope John Paul II. 1976 Edit 1996 Edit 1997 Edit Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa) (1910–1997), Founder of the Missionaries of Charity; venerated in 2002, beatified in 2003, canonized in 2016 by Pope Francis. 1998 Edit María de la Purísima Salvat Romero (1926–1998), a Spanish Roman Catholic nun; canonized in 2015 by Pope Francis. 1999 Edit 21st century Edit 2000 Edit 2001 Edit 2002 Edit 2005 Edit Karol Jozef Wojtyla (1920–2005), Pope John Paul II (Venerated: December 19, 2009) (Beatified: May 01, 2011) (Canonized: April 27, 2014)

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Computer Makers


Current 

@Xi Computer Corporation
@Xi Computer
ABS Computer Technologies (Parent: Newegg)
Acer
Gateway
Packard Bell
ADEK Industrial Computers
Advent
Amiga, Inc.
A-EON Technology
ACube Systems Srl
Hyperion Entertainment
Agilent
Aigo
AMD
Aleutia
Alienware (Parent: Dell)
AMAX Information Technologies
Ankermann
AORUS
AOpen
Apple
Arnouse Digital Devices Corp (ADDC)
ASRock
Asus
AVADirect
AXIOO International
BenQ
Biostar
BOXX Technologies, Inc.
Chassis Plans
Chillblast
Chip PC
Clevo
Sager Notebook Computers
Cray
Crystal Group
Cybernet Computer Inc.
Compal
Cooler Master
CyberPower PC
Cybertron PC
Dell
Wyse Technology
DFI
Digital Storm
Doel (computer)
Elitegroup Computer Systems (ECS)
Evans & Sutherland
Everex
EVGA
Falcon Northwest
FIC
Fujitsu
Fusion Red
Foxconn
Founder Technology
Getac
Gigabyte
Gradiente
Groupe Bull
Grundig (Parent: Arçelik)
Hasee
Hewlett-Packard (HP)
Compaq
Hitachi
HTC
Hyundai
IBM
IBuyPower
Intel
Inventec
In-Win
Ironside
Itautec
IGEL
Jetta International
Kohjinsha
Kontron AG
LanFirePC
Lanix
Lanner Electronics
LanSlide Gaming PCs
Lenovo
Medion
LG
LiteOn
Maingear
MDG Computers
Meebox
Mesh Computers
Micron
Microsoft
Micro-Star International (MSI)
Micro Center
MiTAC
Motion Computing
Motorola
NComputing
NCR
NEC
NUDT
NVIDIA
NZXT
Olidata
Olivetti
Oracle
Origin PC
Panasonic
Positivo Informática
Psychsoftpc
Puget Systems
Quanta Computer
RCA
Razer
RoseWill
Samsung
Sapphire Technology
Sharp Corporation
Shuttle
SGI
Síragon
Sony
StealthMachines
Supermicro
Systemax
System76
T-Platforms
TabletKiosk
Tadpole Computer
Tatung
Toshiba
Tyan
Unisys
V3 Gaming PC
Velocity Micro
Overdrive PC
Vestel
Venom
VIA Technologies
ViewSonic
Viglen
Virus Computers Inc.
Vizio
VT Miltope
Wistron
Wortmann
Xidax
Zelybron
Zombie PC
Zoostorm
Zotac

Companies that have ceased production

Acorn Computers
Alliant Computer Systems - Ceased operations in 1992.
Altos Computer Systems - acquired by Acer in 1990.
Amdahl Corporation - A wholly owned subsidiary of Fujitsu since 1997.
Amstrad
Apollo Computer - Acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 1989.
Apricot Computers - ceased operations in 1999.
Ardent Computer - Merged with Stellar Computer to form Stardent in 1989.
AST Computers, LLC - Exited the computer market in 2001.
Atari Corporation
Bell & Howell
Burroughs - Merged with Sperry to form Unisys in 1986.
Celerity Computing - Acquired by Floating Point Systems in 1988.
Commodore International - declared bankruptcy in 1994.
Compaq - Acquired by Hewlett-Packard in 2002. Defunct as a subsidiary as of 2010.
CompuAdd - filed for bankruptcy in 1993.
Computer Automation
Control Data Corporation (CDC) - Shrank as units were spun off from 1988 to 1992; remainder is now Ceridian.
Convex Computer - purchased by Hewlett-Packard in 1995
Corona Data Systems - among the original "IBM PC Compatible" clone makers
Cromemco
Data General - was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s, purchased by EMC in 1999 for its innovative RAID array storage.
Digital Equipment Corporation - Acquired by Compaq in 1998.
Durango Systems Corporation merged with Molecular Systems in 1982 which went bankrupt in 1984
Eagle Computer - ceased operations in 1986.
Eckert–Mauchly Computer - Acquired by Remington Rand in 1950.
Egenera
Ekos
Elonex — Sells tablets (as of 2011)
EMCC
Encore Computer - Acquired by Gores Technology Group in 1998 and renamed to Encore Real Time Computing, which Gores then sold to Compro Computer Services in 2002.
English Electric - merged into International Computers Limited.
eMachines - Discontinued by its current owner Acer in 2012.
Everex - US subsidiary closed its doors in 2009.
Evesham - merged into TIME Computers.
Franklin Computer Corporation - exited computer hardware business and reorganized into Franklin Electronic Publishers.
Gateway - Acquired by Acer in October 2007
General Electric - Sold its computer division to Honeywell in 1970.
Gericom - Acquired by Quanmax then merged with S&T
Gould Electronics - Sold its computer division to Nippon Mining in 1988, who in turn sold it to Encore Computer later that year.
HCL - Ceased PC manufacturing.
Honeywell - Sold its computer division to Groupe Bull in 1991.
International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) - merged into International Computers Limited.
International Computers Limited (ICL) - now part of Fujitsu.
Kaypro - filed for bankruptcy in 1992.
Leading Edge - Mid '80s leader in PC Clone for the masses - Manufacturing done first by Mitsubishi then Daewoo
Luxor AB - Ended in 1986 after being acquired by Nokia the previous year.
Magnavox
Magnuson Computer Systems - filed for bankruptcy in the early 1980s.
Maxdata (Germany) - Insolvent in 2008; warranty for existing products taken over by then the Swiss Belinea AG (see Belinea), now owned by Bluechip Computer. Warranty for Belinea products purchased before 1 November 2008 is not serviced anymore by Bluechip Computer.[1]
Mitsubishi Electronics - Closed computer systems division in 1990 Manufactured systems for Leading Edge and Sperry-Unisys
MPC (formerly MicronPC) - Filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy on November 7, 2008. Efforts at reorganization failed.
Multiflow Computer - Ceased operations in 1990.
NeXT - acquired by Apple Computer in 1996.
Nixdorf Computer - Acquired by Siemens in 1991, renamed Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG.
Northgate Computer Systems - Acquired by Lan Plus in 1997, after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1994; Lan Plus later renamed itself Northgate Innovations.
Osborne Computer - Ceased operations in 1985; rights to the Osbourne brand were sold to Mikrolog.
Packard Bell - is now a subsidiary of Acer.
Prime Computer - acquired by Parametric Technology Corporation.
Processor Technology - Ceased operations in 1979.
Psystar - Under 2009 permanent injunction to stop selling computers with Apple's Mac OS X operating system. Psystar's web site has disappeared.
Pyramid Technology - Acquired by Siemens in 1995.
Quantex Microsystems - Bankrupt in 2000.
Radio Shack
RCA - Exited the computer business in 1971; Sperry Rand took over RCA's installed base in 1972.
Research Machines - Exited manufacturing in late 2013. Brand continues as a services company.
Remington Rand - Acquired by Sperry to form Sperry Rand in 1955.
Sanyo - bought out by Panasonic
Scientific Data Systems - Acquired by Xerox in 1969.
Sequent Computer Systems - Acquired by IBM in 1999.
Siemens - Computer division (Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG) merged 50/50 with Fujitsu into Fujitsu Siemens Computers in 1999, then Siemens half bought by Fujitsu in 2009.
Silicon Graphics - acquired by Rackable Systems in 2009, when Rackable then re-branded to SGI.
Sinclair Research - acquired by Amstrad in 1986.
Solbourne Computer - Acquired by Deloitte Consulting in 2008.
Soyo
Sperry - Merged with Burroughs to form Unisys in 1986.
Sperry Rand - Dropped "Rand" from its name in 1978 and continued as Sperry.
Stardent - Ceased operations in 1992.
Sun Microsystems - Acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010.
Systems Engineering Laboratories - Acquired by Gould Electronics in 1981 and became Gould's computer division.
Tandon Corporation
Tandy Corporation - Previous parent company of RadioShack, produced the TRS-80 and Tandy 1000 and 2000 IBM PC compatible computers. Sold their computer division to AST Computers in the early 1990s.
Tiny Computers - merged into TIME Computers.
Texas Instruments
TriGem Computer - Declared bankrupt in 2012
Averatec - Averatec subsidiary goes out of business in 2012.
Tulip Computers - changed its name to Nedfield NV in 2008, pronounced bankrupt on 3 September 2009.
Vigor Gaming (USA) - Disappeared in March 2010
VoodooPC
VTech
Wang Laboratories - acquired by Getronics in 1999.
Wipro - Ceased PC manufacturing.
Xerox - Exited the computer business.
Zenith Data Systems - Merged With Packard Bell and NEC in 1996
Zeos - merged into MPC Corporation in 1996, which in turn filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2008.
Zepto Computers A/S (Denmark) - On 17 November 2009 Zepto Computer was declared bankrupt, after several tries to save the company.

Monday, May 23, 2016

FIFA Soccer World Cup winners and losers

Year Winner Final score Loser 

1930 Uruguay 4–2 Argentina 

1934 Italy 2–1 Czechoslovakia 

1938 Italy 4–2 Hungary 

1950* Uruguay 2–1 Brazil 

1954 West Germany 3–2 Hungary 

1958 Brazil 5–2 Sweden 

1962 Brazil 3–1 Czechoslovakia 

1966 England 4–2 West Germany

1970 Brazil 4–1 Italy 

1974 West Germany 2–1 Netherlands 

1978 Argentina 3–1 Netherlands 

1982 Italy 3–1 West Germany 

1986 Argentina 3–2 West Germany

1990 West Germany 1–0 Argentina

1994 Brazil 0–0 Italy

1998 France 3-0 Brazil 

2002 Brazil 2–0 Germany 

2006 Italy 1–1 France 

2010 Spain 1–0 Netherlands 

2014 Germany 1–0 Argentina